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盘点2015汽车产业十件大事
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因在柴油车上安装欺骗装置并排放超限尾气一事,美国司法部正式对德国大众汽车公司提起民事诉讼。图为美国公众在大众汽车公司前抗议尾气作弊行为。(JOHN MACDOUGALL/AFP/Getty Images)

在刚过去的2015年,汽车产业风波迭起。汽车新闻网Automotive News最近评选出一年来影响产业的10大新闻事件。本文配以信息和观点,供读者作为回顾的参考。

第1:VW排放系统造假

无疑2015年整个汽车产业最大事件当属VW(大众)汽车公司在尾气检测上造假的问题被曝光。2015年9月美环保局(EPA)指VW产多款柴油型汽车使用专门软件绕过美国的尾气排放测试,氧化氮严重超标,有的车款尾气排放量是美国限定排量的40倍。事件涉及2009至2015车型年的全球1,100万台柴油车,在美国50万台。VW公司认错,CEO马丁?文德恩(Martin Winterkorn)道歉后并被迫辞职,3位重量级主管被停职。预计VW将耗费数百亿美元解决此问题。

第2:要赚更多 汽车枭雄动议制造商全面合并

意大利裔加拿大人塞尔焦?马尔乔内(Sergio Marchionne)现任Fiat Chrysler Automobiles(菲亚特-克莱斯勒)汽车公司CEO,一直被视为是Fiat和Chrysler两家公司的“拯救者”。2015年他再“兴风作浪”,发布名为“一个资本上瘾者的自白”的声明,批评整个汽车工业的投资回报太低,而他提出的妙招则是对一些配件进行合作生产,比如4缸发动机,更有争议的是,他建议进行一波全面的企业联合,并向GM(通用)汽车公司放话,要其与Fiat Chrysler Automobiles合并,但GM不识抬举,拒绝了提议。有分析则指,马尔乔内可能会试图收购GM,尽管他声明说:“目前”无任何敌意。

2015年全美汽车销量连续第六年增长,预计轻型车销量将超1,700万台,将打破2000年创下的纪录1,740万台。

第3:全美汽车销量连涨5年 或破纪录

2015年全美汽车销量连续第六年增长,预计轻型车销量将超1,700万台,将打破2000年创下的纪录1,740万台。上一次销售连续六年增长还是在1921至1926年。且分析师和汽车工业领袖根据公路上现有汽车的车龄与美国的就业点推测,明、后两年也将超1,700万台。连续三年超1,700万台将是史上首次。

第4:交通安全局长威慑汽车制造商

NHTSA(美国公路交通安全管理局)局长马克?罗斯坎德(Mark Rosekind)对汽车制造商表现出强硬姿态,延长对打火器曝出问题的GM(通用)公司的安全监管;施压Takata Corp.(高田)公司,使其承认安全气囊缺陷;斥责Fiat Chrysler Automobiles(菲亚特-克莱斯勒)汽车公司召回行动太慢,并以“未依法上报所需的安全数据”为由在12月初对其罚款7000千万美元。其作风强势,被NHTSA前局长形容为“小镇上的新警长”。

第5:全美汽车工人联合会与三大汽车公司劳资谈判

UAW(全美汽车工人联合会)的工人在与底特律三大汽车公司通用(GM)、Ford(福特)、Fiat Chrysler(菲亚特-克莱斯勒)的合同谈判过程中还算给面子,没有罢工,但谈判一度很紧张。一等工人缺少加薪;新雇员被归入薪水较低的二等工人,这两项问题让工人们心怀不满。最后,三巨头对二等工人作出妥协。

第6:高田安全气囊瑕疵 史上最大召回

高田公司的安全气囊事件又持续了一年,已成为汽车历史上规模最大、最复杂的召回事件。其气囊出现爆裂,且发生多起弹出的碎片致乘客伤亡事故,在美国涉及8例死者,高田可能面临2亿美元罚款。对此安全瑕疵的修补在技术上并不昂贵,但需按不同的车型订制,再加上召回规模庞大,使得有些车要几年后才能修好。且几家汽车制造商发誓停用高田的气囊,此举可能导致高田公司出局。

第7:汽车已变身“带车轮的智能手机”

今年传出苹果公司(Apple)已组成数百人团队正在打造苹果电动车,项目代号为“Titan”。而Google(谷歌)公司则雇用前Hyundai(现代)汽车公司CEO打造其无人驾驶汽车。

第8:日本三大枭雄5年内推出自动车

担心高科技公司的无人驾驶技术会在未来的市场占上风,日本三大制造商Toyota,Honda和Nissan利用2015秋季的东京汽车展放话,将要在2020年让其自动汽车进入市场。Nissan的CEO说,如果Nissan不向前推进,汽车工业将被苹果、Google和Uber等外来的挑战者入侵。2020年东京奥运会也将给日本三大汽车枭雄一个向世界游客展示汽车技术的好机会。

第9:最畅销车2款评级天渊之别

福特F-150连续三十多年稳居全美最畅销车型。福特在F-150的SuperCrew车款上安装的4个管状钢条在IIHS(Insurance Institute for Highway Safety)的碰撞测试中非常有效地保护了乘客舱的安全,使福特赢得了每家制造商都垂涎的“最佳安全选择”评级。但不知为何福特没有在F-150的其他车款上也使用此钢条。IIHS注意到此不同后,给F-150的另一车款SuperCab测试打出仅次于最差的评级。去年开始Ford将钢车身转换为更轻的铝制,因而此次评级很重要。

第10:AutoNation与TrueCar“离婚”

累积售车已超过1千万台的美国最大汽车零售商AutoNation从2015年开始扭转其依赖TrueCar, AutoTrader.com和Cars.com等第三方买卖网站的销售方式,目前已有超过20%的销售通过自己开发的AutoNation Express在线工具推动。AutoNation与汽车电子商务网站TrueCar因关于信息公开透明的理念不合,合同谈判破裂,从此分道扬镳。

来源:大纪元 责任编辑:马天祥

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原文链接:盘点2015汽车产业十件大事 - 图片新闻

本文标签:公司, 大众, 大纪元, 日本, 汽车, 美元, 美国, 苹果

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